SEM–Raman image cytometry of cells
Correlative and integrated scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman micro-spectroscopy is presented that enables the characterization and identification of different cancer and non-cancer cells through SEM–Raman image cytometry. The hybrid microscopy system enables the acquisition of high resolution SEM images of uncoated cells and the spatial correlation with chemical information as obtained from Raman micro-spectroscopic imaging. A sample preparation protocol and a workflow are presented that are compatible with the demands of hybrid SEM–Raman microscopy. Stainless steel cell substrates were used that are both conductive and give a low optical response in Raman scattering. Correlative and integrated SEM–Raman micro-spectroscopy is illustrated with cells from blood and cells from a SKBR-3 breast cancer cell line.