Chemical analysis in saliva and the search for salivary biomarkers – a tutorial review
Biomarkers refer to analytes that can be used in the diagnosis of diseases or disorders. In saliva, there are many components that are potential biomarkers, and increasing research has focussed on the development of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. This review summarizes the existing uses of salivary biomarkers and highlights the importance of the choice of saliva collection as well as the storage procedures. A case study on the effect of collection tools on the concentrations of one of the potential biomarkers, glutathione, is highlighted. Moreover, molecular diagnosis requires reliable measurement assays. This review presents electroanalytical methods for the detection of salivary biomarkers. It further reviews approaches that can be taken to improve the selectivity of electroanalytical assays without the use of biologically selective materials, notably without the use of enzymes or antibodies.