Progress of in vivo studies on the systemic toxicities induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are inorganic materials with a diameter of 1–100 nm. In recent years, TiO2 NPs have been used in a wide range of products, including food, toothpaste, cosmetics, medicine, paints and printing materials, due to their unique properties (high stability, anti-corrosion, and efficient photocatalysis). Following exposure via various routes including inhalation, injection, dermal deposition and gastrointestinal tract absorption, NPs can be found in various organs in the body potentially inducing toxic effects. Thus more attention to the safety of TiO2 NPs is necessary. Therefore, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the toxic effects induced by TiO2 NPs in the lung, liver, stomach, intestine, kidney, spleen, brain, hippocampus, heart, blood vessels, ovary and testis of mice and rats in in vivo experiments, and evaluate their potential toxic mechanisms. The findings will provide an important reference for human risk evaluation and management following TiO2 NP exposure.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Toxicology Research 2017 Most Downloaded Articles