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Issue 4, 2017
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Thermally activated delayed fluorescent phenothiazine–dibenzo[a,j]phenazine–phenothiazine triads exhibiting tricolor-changing mechanochromic luminescence

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Abstract

Novel U-shaped donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) π-conjugated multi-functional molecules comprising dibenzo[a,j]phenazine (DBPHZ) as an acceptor and phenothiazines (PTZ) as donors have been developed. Most importantly, the D–A–D compounds exhibit not only distinct tricolor-changeable mechanochromic luminescence (MCL) properties but also efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). Quantum chemical calculations, X-ray diffraction analysis, and systematic studies on the photophysical properties indicated that the “two-conformation-switchable” PTZ units play a highly important role in achieving multi-color-changing MCL. Time-resolved photophysical measurements revealed that the developed D–A–D compounds also exhibit efficient orange-TADF. Furthermore, organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices fabricated with the new TADF emitters have achieved high external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) up to 16.8%, which significantly exceeds the theoretical maximum (∼5%) of conventional fluorescent emitters.

Graphical abstract: Thermally activated delayed fluorescent phenothiazine–dibenzo[a,j]phenazine–phenothiazine triads exhibiting tricolor-changing mechanochromic luminescence

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
02 Nov 2016
Accepted
07 Jan 2017
First published
11 Jan 2017

This article is Open Access
All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Chem. Sci., 2017,8, 2677-2686
Article type
Edge Article

Thermally activated delayed fluorescent phenothiazine–dibenzo[a,j]phenazine–phenothiazine triads exhibiting tricolor-changing mechanochromic luminescence

M. Okazaki, Y. Takeda, P. Data, P. Pander, H. Higginbotham, A. P. Monkman and S. Minakata, Chem. Sci., 2017, 8, 2677
DOI: 10.1039/C6SC04863C

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