Essential oil eugenol: sources, extraction techniques and nutraceutical perspectives
Eugenol, a phytogenic bioactive component is frequently found in diversified herbal plants possessing well-defined functional attributes. Prominent sources of eugenol are clove, cinnamon, tulsi and pepper. Various extraction methods have been practiced globally for the extraction of eugenol and other nutraceutics from plants. The most extensively employed approaches in this regard include solvent extraction, hydro-distillation, microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and ultrasound-based extraction. Eugenol has been approved to encompass numerous beneficial aspects against a capacious spectrum of life threatening indispositions including oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperglycemia, elevated cholesterol level, neural disorders and cancer. In addition, eugenol has also shown strong potential as an antimicrobial agent against wide ranges of pathogenic and spoilage causing microorganisms. Predominantly, the principle mechanistic approaches associated with the therapeutic potential of eugenol include its free radical scavenging activity, hindrance of reactive oxygen species' generation, preventing the production of reactive nitrogen species, enhancement of cyto-antioxidant potential and disruption of microbial DNA & proteins. Consequently, this article is an attempt to elucidate the general properties, sources, extraction methods, therapeutic role and associated mechanisms of eugenol.
- This article is part of the themed collections: 2018 Open Access Week Collection, 2017 and 2018 RSC Advances Reviews from Around the World, 2017 Review articles and RSC Advances: Most downloaded articles of 2017