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Issue 14, 2017, Issue in Progress
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The degradation and persistence of five pharmaceuticals in an artificial climate incubator during a one year period

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Abstract

The degradation and persistence of the five pharmaceuticals atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, fluoxetine and venlafaxine at an initial concentration of 10 mg L−1 was studied at different pH values under fluorescent light and darkness in an artificial climate incubator during a one-year period. The results suggested that the degradation process of the target pharmaceuticals followed pseudo first-order degradation kinetics. Propranolol was degraded at a higher rate, with a half-life ranging from 5.7 to 28.5 d. The degradation rates of propranolol and venlafaxine increased with increasing pH value, while the other pharmaceuticals did not show a clear pH correlation, with the highest degradation rate at pH 7 for atenolol, pH 2 for metoprolol and pH 12 for fluoxetine. Both photodegradation and hydrolysis should contribute to the degradation. Typical transformation products were detected and were identified as metoprolol acid, α-hydroxymetoprolol, norfluoxetine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine. The findings could not only help to understand the degradation and fate of pharmaceuticals but also provide the fundamental data for persistence assessments.

Graphical abstract: The degradation and persistence of five pharmaceuticals in an artificial climate incubator during a one year period

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Publication details

The article was received on 18 Dec 2016, accepted on 17 Jan 2017 and first published on 25 Jan 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6RA28351A
RSC Adv., 2017,7, 8280-8287
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    The degradation and persistence of five pharmaceuticals in an artificial climate incubator during a one year period

    L. Yin, R. Ma, B. Wang, H. Yuan and G. Yu, RSC Adv., 2017, 7, 8280
    DOI: 10.1039/C6RA28351A

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