Design of SERS nanotags for multiplexed lateral flow immunoassays†
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been attractive for enhancing the sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassays (LFA). A format that has enabled specific detection of biomarkers is to use Raman reporter molecules linked to gold nanoparticles (NPs), which are conjugated to laboratory made antibodies specific for the target of interest. Many factors such as the NP and Ab properties and the method of signal readout impact the sensitivity of a SERS based immunoassay. To understand how to optimize assay sensitivity, we studied SERS readouts of multiplexed sandwich immunoassays for the zika and dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1) biomarkers as a test case. We investigated the effect of NP shape on the SERS enhancement of the reporter molecules 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA). We also performed SERS imaging of test lines to map the spatial distribution of signal in test lines on the nitrocellulose. Finally, we used a modified least squares analysis to differentiate reporter contributions.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Engineering Nanoparticles for Sensing and Biomedical Applications