Study on the interaction between the 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide–spermine conjugate (NDIS) and DNA using a spectroscopic approach and molecular docking†
The interaction of herring sperm DNA with the 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide–spermine conjugate (NDIS) was studied by UV/vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectroscopic methods. Compared with the 1,8-naphthalimide–spermidine conjugate (NIS), the values of KSV (quenching constant) and Kb (binding constant) of NDIS were larger, and the hypochromic effect in the UV/vis spectra and the quenching effect in the fluorescence of NDIS were more significant. The interaction mode between NDIS and DNA was mainly groove binding. The fluorescence experiments at varying temperatures showed that the binding process of NDIS and DNA was static, as both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces played a major role in the binding of NDIS and DNA. The CD spectrum indicated that NDIS caused a conformational change, like the B to A-DNA transition, and the tests using KI and NaCl and 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated that NDIS was not a classical DNA inserter. All the results demonstrated that both the polyamine side chain and the aromatic rings affect the process of NDIS binding to DNA, which is thus obviously different from that of NIS. The conclusion was confirmed by the in silico molecular docking experiments.