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Issue 16, 2017
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An in situ formed Ca2+–crown ether complex and its use in CO2-fixation reactions with terminal and internal epoxides

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Abstract

Herein we report an efficient catalytic system based on readily available calcium iodide and 18-crown-6 ether for the atom economical addition of CO2 to epoxides. 1H NMR experiments revealed the selective in situ formation of a crown ether complex. This catalyst allows the conversion of various terminal epoxides under 1 atm CO2 pressure even at room temperature. Remarkably, a broad range of internal epoxides with various substitution patterns and substituents were smoothly converted which confirms the high efficiency and capability of the protocol. Notably, most of the internal carbonates were synthesized in high yields and diastereoselectivities of up to ≥99%. Furthermore, this system operates under solvent-free conditions without any co-catalysts e.g. onium salts.

Graphical abstract: An in situ formed Ca2+–crown ether complex and its use in CO2-fixation reactions with terminal and internal epoxides

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Article information


Submitted
12 Apr 2017
Accepted
12 May 2017
First published
06 Jun 2017

Green Chem., 2017,19, 3769-3779
Article type
Paper

An in situ formed Ca2+–crown ether complex and its use in CO2-fixation reactions with terminal and internal epoxides

J. Steinbauer, A. Spannenberg and T. Werner, Green Chem., 2017, 19, 3769
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01114H

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