Light-driven micro- and nanomotors for environmental remediation
Synthetic micro- and nanomotors (MNMs) have emerged as a vibrant research field in multidisciplinary nanotechnology with proof-of-concept applications in various disciplines. In this tutorial review, an overview of the latest achievements towards light-driven MNMs is given and their propulsion mechanisms are introduced. The focus of the paper is on the autonomously propelled MNMs that exploit light-induced physical effects or chemical reactions. Light-induced body deformation, as a completely different, nature inspired concept that is found mostly in soft, polymeric MNMs, is also reviewed. In the end, a few applications of photocatalytic and light-driven MNMs for environmental remediation are presented and their potential is critically discussed.