O–O bond formation in ruthenium-catalyzed water oxidation: single-site nucleophilic attack vs. O–O radical coupling
In this review we discuss at the mechanistic level the different steps involved in water oxidation catalysis with ruthenium-based molecular catalysts. We have chosen to focus on ruthenium-based catalysts to provide a more coherent discussion and because of the availability of detailed mechanistic studies for these systems but many of the aspects presented in this review are applicable to other systems as well. The water oxidation cycle has been divided in four major steps: water oxidative activation, O–O bond formation, oxidative activation of peroxide intermediates, and O2 evolution. A significant portion of the review is dedicated to the O–O bond formation step as the key step in water oxidation catalysis. The two main pathways to accomplish this step, single-site water nucleophilic attack and O–O radical coupling, are discussed in detail and compared in terms of their potential use in photoelectrochemical cells for solar fuels generation.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Artificial Photosynthesis