Multifunctional metal–organic framework catalysts: synergistic catalysis and tandem reactions
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials constructed from metal ions or clusters and multidentate organic ligands. Recently, the use of MOFs or MOF composites as catalysts for synergistic catalysis and tandem reactions has attracted increasing attention due to their tunable open metal centres, functional organic linkers, and active guest species in their pores. In this review, the applications of MOFs with multiple active sites in synergistic organic catalysis, photocatalysis and tandem reactions are discussed. These multifunctional MOFs can be categorized by the type of active centre as follows: (i) open metal centres and functional organic linkers in the MOF structure, (ii) active guest sites in the pores and active sites in the MOF structure, and (iii) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) on MOF supports. The types of synergistic catalysis and tandem reactions promoted by multifunctional MOFs and their proposed mechanisms are presented in detail. Here, catalytic MOFs with a single type of active site and MOFs that only serve as supports to enhance substrate adsorption are not discussed.