Heteroaggregation of oppositely charged particles in the presence of multivalent ions†
Time-resolved dynamic light scattering is used to measure absolute heteroaggregation rate coefficients and the corresponding stability ratios for heteroaggregation between amidine and sulfate latex particles. These measurements are complemented by the respective quantities for the homoaggregation of the two systems and electrophoresis. Based on the latter measurements, the stability ratios are calculated using Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory. In monovalent salt solutions, the two types of particles investigated are oppositely charged. In the presence of multivalent ions, however, one particle type reverses its charge, while the charge of the other particle type is hardly affected. In this region, the heteroaggregation stability ratio goes through a pronounced maximum when plotted versus concentration. This region of slow aggregation is wider than the one observed in the corresponding homoaggregation process. One also finds that the onset of this region sensitively depends on the boundary conditions used to calculate the double layer force. The present results are more in line with constant potential boundary conditions.