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Issue 3, 2016
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Effect of intercalation and chromophore arrangement on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of model aminopyridine push–pull molecules

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Abstract

Three push–pull aminopyridine derivatives having D–π–A, D–(π–A)2, and D–(π–A)3 arrangements were examined as model organic chromophores capable of intercalation into inorganic layered materials (alpha modification of zirconium hydrogen phosphate, zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate, and gamma modification of titanium hydrogen phosphate). The fundamental properties of these dyes, their methylated analogues as well as their intercalates were studied by X-ray analysis, electrochemistry, UV/Vis absorption spectra, TGA, IR spectra, SHG, and were completed by DFT calculations. The synthesis of tripodal tris(pyridin-4-yl)amine is given for the first time. The HOMO–LUMO gap, the position of the longest-wavelength absorption maxima, and the dipole moment of aminopyridines can easily be tuned by attaching/removing pyridin-4-yl electron withdrawing units and their quaternization (pyridine vs. pyridinium acceptors). Their intercalation proved to be feasible affording novel inorganic–organic hybrid materials. The intercalation is accompanied by protonation of the guest, which enhances its ICT and strongly anchors the aminopyridines into the confined space of the layered host. Moreover, this process results in ordering of the organic chromophores and also brings improved thermal and chemical robustness. As a result, the measured SHG efficiencies of the intercalates are larger than those observed for the pure organic push–pull chromophores. Hence, the methodology of intercalation turned out to be very useful strategy for property tuning of NLO-active organic molecules.

Graphical abstract: Effect of intercalation and chromophore arrangement on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of model aminopyridine push–pull molecules

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
26 Oct 2015
Accepted
01 Dec 2015
First published
02 Dec 2015

This article is Open Access

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016,4, 468-478
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Effect of intercalation and chromophore arrangement on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of model aminopyridine push–pull molecules

F. Bureš, D. Cvejn, K. Melánová, L. Beneš, J. Svoboda, V. Zima, O. Pytela, T. Mikysek, Z. Růžičková, I. V. Kityk, A. Wojciechowski and N. AlZayed, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 468
DOI: 10.1039/C5TC03499J

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