Understanding problems of lithiated anodes in lithium oxygen full-cells†
Lithium oxygen batteries are attractive battery systems which can provide high energy density for the next generation. However, even if many research studies have made progress for years, the studies about substitution of Li metal which has inherent limitations in terms of stability and long term cycling properties are terribly deficient. Herein, our group clearly demonstrates the ambiguous unsolved problems of lithium oxygen full-cells using an alternative anode for Li metal by XRD and SEM analysis. The amount of Li source in the alternative anode is limited compared to the quasi-infinite amount of Li source in Li metal. The returning lithium ions during charging form lithium hydroxide which passivates the anode by a side reaction with moisture in the electrolyte and from outside. This report will help to accelerate the development of lithium oxygen full-cells.