Graphene in perovskite solar cells: device design, characterization and implementation
Conversion of light energy directly into electricity by solar cell devices represents one of the most promising options for highly scalable renewable power. Tremendous effort has been directed at improving photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiencies, resulting in dramatic device performance increases over the past two decades for novel, cost-effective PV systems. Nevertheless, performance issues related to device stability, scalability, and flexibility prevent these novel designs from achieving their market potential. For mechanically flexible architectures, integration of new materials such as graphene-derived nanomaterials (i.e. graphene/graphite oxide and their modified analogs with other nanocarbons and carbon nanotubes) may be necessary to enhance alternatives to silicon-based PV systems. Among the diverse solar technologies, perovskite solar cells—most notably organometal halides—have stood out from the crowd with solar efficiencies over 20% and potential for highly scalable manufacturing. Here, we review the use of graphene and graphene-derived nanomaterials in new designs of perovskite solar cells associated with organic–inorganic metal halide perovskites utilized as light-harvesting layers, outlining design perspectives, device characterization, and performance. Recent efforts to clarify stability issues and efficiency control mechanisms are also briefly discussed, and we provide some perspective on the currently available literature and future research directions in the field.
- This article is part of the themed collections: 2016 Journal of Materials Chemistry A HOT Papers and 2016 Journal of Materials Chemistry A Most Accessed Manuscripts