Influence of carbon substrate on the electrochemical performance of carbon/manganese oxide hybrids in aqueous and organic electrolytes†
Manganese oxide presents very promising electrochemical properties as an electrode material in supercapacitors, but there remain important open questions to guide further development of the complex manganese oxide/carbon/electrolyte system. Our work addresses specifically the influence of carbon ordering and the difference between outer and inner porosity of carbon particles for the application in aqueous 1 M Na2SO4 and 1 M LiClO4 in acetonitrile. Birnessite-type manganese oxide was hydrothermally hybridized on two kinds of carbon onions with only outer surface area and different electrical conductivity, and conventional activated carbon with a high inner porosity. Carbon onions with a high degree of carbon ordering, high conductivity, and high outer surface area were identified as the most promising material, yielding 179 F g−1. Pore blocking in activated carbon yields unfavorable electrochemical performances. The highest specific energy of 16.4 W h kg−1 was measured for a symmetric full-cell arrangement of manganese oxide coated high temperature carbon onions in the organic electrolyte. High stability during 10 000 cycles was achieved for asymmetric full-cells, which proved as a facile way to enhance the electrochemical performance stability.