Phenolic composition, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of ethanol and water extracts of Chenopodium botrys†
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activities of ethanol and water extracts of Chenopodium botrys L. In the ethanol extract, the amounts of flavonoids, saponins, and condensed tannins were found to be higher than those of the water extract (4.54 mg of rutin equivalent (RE) per g of dry plant, 25.45 mg of quillaja equivalent (QAE) per g of dry plant, and 59.20 mg of catechin equivalent (CE) per g of dry plant, respectively). On the other hand, a total phenolic assay showed a superiority of the water extract (3.85 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dry plant). The extracts were also subjected to screening for the quantification of selected compounds. Among the compounds, benzoic acid was found to be the most abundant one in the extracts (59.93 and 2974.24 μg per g of dry plant, respectively). In general, antioxidant activity assays showed the superiority of the water extract. C. botrys extracts were also evaluated for their inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase. The water extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on AChE, tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase (113.69 μg of galantine equivalent (GALAE) per g of dry plant, 165.56 μg of kojic acid equivalent (KAE) per g of dry plant, 7.16 mg of acarbose equivalent (ACE) per g of dry plant, and 6.47 mg of ACE per g of dry plant, respectively). On the other hand, BChE inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was found to be higher than that of the water extract (60.90 μg of GALAE per g of dry plant). According to the results of the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity assays, C. botrys may have the potential to prevent diseases associated with oxidative stress and to prevent AD, pigmentation diseases, hyperglycaemia and its associated complications.