One-pot synthesis of Hantzsch dihydropyridines using a highly efficient and stable PdRuNi@GO catalyst†
Addressed herein, highly monodispersed PdRuNi nanoparticles furnished with graphene oxide (PdRuNi@GO NPs) were prepared as novel, stable, efficient and exceptionally reusable heterogeneous catalysts for 1,4-dihydropyridine synthesis via multicomponent condensation reactions of various aldehydes with dimedone, ammonium acetate and ethyl acetoacetate at 70 °C in DMF with efficient catalytic performance. These synthesized novel materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This presented one pot catalytic process is described as a new methodology of the Hantzsch synthesis, which can be assessed as quite simple and efficient as well as exceptionally reusable. At the end of the reaction, one of the highest yields and the shortest times were obtained for the model reaction in the presence of novel monodisperse PdRuNi@GO NPs.