Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance work on Wednesday 22nd May 2019 from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM (GMT).

During this time our website performance may be temporarily affected. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.

Issue 13, 2016
Previous Article Next Article

Carboxylated nanodiamonds inhibit γ-irradiation damage of human red blood cells

Author affiliations


Nanodiamonds when carboxylated (cNDs) act as reducing agents and hence could limit oxidative damage in biological systems. Gamma (γ)-irradiation of whole blood or its components is required in immunocompetent patients to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, γ-irradiation of blood also deoxygenates red blood cells (RBCs) and induces oxidative damage, including abnormalities in cellular membranes and hemolysis. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we examined the effect of cNDs on γ-irradiation mediated deoxygenation and morphological damage of RBCs. γ-Radiation induced several morphological phenotypes, including stomatocytes, codocytes and echinocytes. While stomatocytes and codocytes are reversibly damaged RBCs, echinocytes are irreversibly damaged. AFM images show significantly fewer echinocytes among cND-treated γ-irradiated RBCs. The Raman spectra of γ-irradiated RBCs had more oxygenated hemoglobin patterns when cND-treated, resembling those of normal, non-irradiated RBCs, compared to the non-cND-treated RBCs. cND inhibited hemoglobin deoxygenation and morphological damage, possibly by neutralizing the free radicals generated during γ-irradiation. Thus cNDs have the therapeutic potential to preserve the quality of stored blood following γ-irradiation.

Graphical abstract: Carboxylated nanodiamonds inhibit γ-irradiation damage of human red blood cells

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 01 Oct 2015, accepted on 23 Feb 2016 and first published on 23 Feb 2016

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5NR06789H
Author version
Download author version (PDF)
Nanoscale, 2016,8, 7189-7196

  •   Request permissions

    Carboxylated nanodiamonds inhibit γ-irradiation damage of human red blood cells

    K. Santacruz-Gomez, E. Silva-Campa, R. Melendrez-Amavizca, F. Teran Arce, V. Mata-Haro, P. B. Landon, C. Zhang, M. Pedroza-Montero and R. Lal, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 7189
    DOI: 10.1039/C5NR06789H

Search articles by author