A review of patents (2011–2015) towards combating resistance to and toxicity of aminoglycosides
Since the discovery of the first aminoglycoside (AG), streptomycin, in 1943, these broad-spectrum antibiotics have been extensively used for the treatment of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections. The inherent toxicity (ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity) associated with their long-term use as well as the emergence of resistant bacterial strains have limited their usage. Structural modifications of AGs by AG-modifying enzymes, reduced target affinity caused by ribosomal modification, and decrease in their cellular concentration by efflux pumps have resulted in resistance towards AGs. However, the last decade has seen a renewed interest among the scientific community for AGs as exemplified by the recent influx of scientific articles and patents on their therapeutic use. In this review, we use a non-conventional approach to put forth this renaissance on AG development/application by summarizing all patents filed on AGs from 2011–2015 and highlighting some related publications on the most recent work done on AGs to overcome resistance and improving their therapeutic use while reducing ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. We also present work towards developing amphiphilic AGs for use as fungicides as well as that towards repurposing existing AGs for potential newer applications.