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Issue 9, 2016
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Protective effects of fish oil on pre-diabetes: a lipidomic analysis of liver ceramides in rats

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Abstract

A high intake of fat and sucrose can dramatically increase bioactive lipids such as ceramides in tissues. Ceramides regulate several steps in the insulin signal pathway. The effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin resistance are inconsistent, especially in liver. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA (EPA/DHA 1 : 1) from fish oil on hepatic ceramides in a pre-diabetic animal model. Three groups of rats were fed standard feed, high fat high sucrose feed (HFHS) or HFHS enriched with n-3 PUFA. We investigated by lipidomic analysis how supplementation of a HFHS diet with n-3 PUFA modifies the hepatic ceramide profile triggered by a HFHS diet. Our results show that n-3 PUFA modified the ceramide profile of the liver and reduced their total content in pre-diabetic rats. Significant linear correlations were observed between ceramides and biochemical insulin parameters. Long chain ceramide 18:1/18:0 showed a positive correlation with the HOMA index. Very long chain ceramide 18:1/24:0 showed a negative correlation with insulin and the HOMA index. Finally, very long chain ceramide 18:1/20:0 correlated negatively with glucose levels, plasmatic insulin levels and the HOMA index. In conclusion, the modulation of the ceramide profile in pre-diabetic rats may explain the protective action of n-3 PUFA against liver insulin resistance (IR) caused by an HFHS diet. We confirm the protective role of very long chain ceramide 18:1/24:0 and the harmful role of long chain ceramide 18:1/18:0 in the pre-diabetic state and propose ceramide 18:1/20:0 as a biomarker of early liver IR in rats.

Graphical abstract: Protective effects of fish oil on pre-diabetes: a lipidomic analysis of liver ceramides in rats

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
25 Apr 2016
Accepted
05 Aug 2016
First published
08 Aug 2016

Food Funct., 2016,7, 3981-3988
Article type
Paper

Protective effects of fish oil on pre-diabetes: a lipidomic analysis of liver ceramides in rats

N. Taltavull, R. Ras, S. Mariné, M. Romeu, M. Giralt, L. Méndez, I. Medina, S. Ramos-Romero, J. L. Torres and M. R. Nogués, Food Funct., 2016, 7, 3981 DOI: 10.1039/C6FO00589F

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