Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 5, 2016
Previous Article Next Article

Life cycle assessment of sodium-ion batteries

Author affiliations

Abstract

Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as potential alternatives to lithium-ion batteries. This study presents a prospective life cycle assessment for the production of a sodium-ion battery with a layered transition metal oxide as a positive electrode material and hard carbon as a negative electrode material on the battery component level. The complete and transparent inventory data are disclosed, which can easily be used as a basis for future environmental assessments. Na-ion batteries are found to be promising under environmental aspects, showing, per kWh of storage capacity, environmental impacts at the lower end of the range published for current Li-ion batteries. Still significant improvement potential is given, especially by reducing the environmental impacts associated with the hard carbon production for the anode and by reducing the nickel content in the cathode active material. For the hard carbons, the use of organic waste can be considered to be promising in this regard. Nevertheless, when looking at the energy storage capacity over lifetime, achieving a high cycle life and good charge–discharge efficiency is fundamental. This represents the main challenge especially when competing with LFP–LTO type Li-Ion batteries, which already show extraordinarily long lifetimes.

Graphical abstract: Life cycle assessment of sodium-ion batteries

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 01 Mar 2016, accepted on 21 Mar 2016 and first published on 21 Mar 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6EE00640J
Author version
available:
Download author version (PDF)
Citation: Energy Environ. Sci., 2016,9, 1744-1751
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    Life cycle assessment of sodium-ion batteries

    J. Peters, D. Buchholz, S. Passerini and M. Weil, Energy Environ. Sci., 2016, 9, 1744
    DOI: 10.1039/C6EE00640J

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements