Scalable fabrication of micron-scale graphene nanomeshes for high-performance supercapacitor applications†
Graphene nanomeshes (GNMs) with nanoscale periodic or quasi-periodic nanoholes have attracted considerable interest because of unique features such as their open energy band gap, enlarged specific surface area, and high optical transmittance. These features are useful for applications in semiconducting devices, photocatalysis, sensors, and energy-related systems. Here, we report on the facile and scalable preparation of multifunctional micron-scale GNMs with high-density of nanoperforations by catalytic carbon gasification. The catalytic carbon gasification process induces selective decomposition on the graphene adjacent to the metal catalyst, thus forming nanoperforations. The pore size, pore density distribution, and neck size of the GNMs can be controlled by adjusting the size and fraction of the metal oxide on graphene. The fabricated GNM electrodes exhibit superior electrochemical properties for supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) applications, including exceptionally high capacitance (253 F g−1 at 1 A g−1) and high rate capability (212 F g−1 at 100 A g−1) with excellent cycle stability (91% of the initial capacitance after 50 000 charge/discharge cycles). Further, the edge-enriched structure of GNMs plays an important role in achieving edge-selected and high-level nitrogen doping.