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Issue 12, 2016
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Catalytic test reactions for the evaluation of hierarchical zeolites

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Abstract

Hierarchical zeolites have received increasing attention in the last decade due to their outstanding catalytic performance. Several types of hierarchical zeolites can be prepared by a large number of different techniques. Hierarchical zeolites combine the intrinsic catalytic properties of conventional zeolites and the facilitated access and transport in the additional meso- or macropore system. In this tutorial review, we discuss several test reactions that have been explored to show the benefit of the hierarchical pore system with respect to their suitability to prove the positive effects of hierarchical porous zeolites. It is important to note that positive effects on activity, stability and less frequently selectivity observed for hierarchically structured catalysts not necessarily are only a consequence of the additional meso- or macropores but also the number, strength and location of active sites as well as defects and impurities. With regard to these aspects, the test reaction has to be chosen carefully and potential changes in the chemistry of the catalyst have to be considered as well. In addition to the determination of conversion, yield and selectivity, we will show that the calculation of the activation energy and the determination of the Thiele modulus and the effectiveness factor are good indicators of the presence or absence of diffusion limitations in hierarchical zeolites compared to their parent materials.

Graphical abstract: Catalytic test reactions for the evaluation of hierarchical zeolites

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Publication details

The article was received on 23 Dec 2015 and first published on 17 Mar 2016


Article type: Tutorial Review
DOI: 10.1039/C5CS00935A
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Citation: Chem. Soc. Rev., 2016,45, 3313-3330
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    Catalytic test reactions for the evaluation of hierarchical zeolites

    M. Hartmann, A. G. Machoke and W. Schwieger, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2016, 45, 3313
    DOI: 10.1039/C5CS00935A

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