Dual stimuli-responsive smart beads that allow “on–off” manipulation of cancer cells†
Temperature- and electric field-responsive polymer-conjugated polystyrene beads, termed smart beads, are designed to isolate cancer cells. In smart beads, the reversible “on–off” antigen–antibody reaction and dielectrophoresis force on an electrode are accomplished to realize “on–off” remote manipulation of smart beads and cancer cells. Both the zeta-potential and the hydrodynamic diameter of the smart beads are sensitive to temperature, allowing “on–off” reversible capture and release of cancer cells. Cancer cell-captured smart beads are then localized on electrodes by applying an electrical signal.