Dispersant-assisted dynamic microwave extraction of triazine herbicides from rice
A rapid and effective sample pretreatment method, dispersant-assisted dynamic microwave extraction, was first applied to the extraction of six triazine herbicides from rice. The dynamic microwave extraction was coupled with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The dispersant in MSPD was used to disperse the sample and adsorb impurities. Microwave irradiation was used to promote the transfer of the analyte and accelerate the extraction. The extraction and clean-up were performed simultaneously. The effects of experimental parameters, including the solvent type, volume of the extraction solvent, microwave power, type of dispersant, mass ratio of dispersant to rice, and flow rate of the extraction solvent, on the recoveries of the analytes were investigated. The limits of detection for the analytes ranged from 0.62 to 1.79 μg kg−1. The recoveries of the triazine herbicides in spiked rice samples were in the range of 84.3–101%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.2%.