Charging and discharging at the nanoscale: Fermi level equilibration of metallic nanoparticles
The redox properties of metallic nanoparticles are discussed, in particular the relationships between excess charge, size and the Fermi level of the electrons. The redox potentials are derived using simple electrostatic models to provide a straightforward understanding of the basic phenomena. The different techniques used to measure the variation of Fermi level are presented. Finally, redox aspects of processes such as toxicity, electrochromicity and surface plasmon spectroscopy are discussed.