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Issue 4, 2015
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Ruthenium-caged antisense morpholinos for regulating gene expression in zebrafish embryos

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Abstract

Photochemical approaches afford high spatiotemporal control over molecular structure and function, for broad applications in materials and biological science. Here, we present the first example of a visible light responsive ruthenium-based photolinker, Ru(bipyridine)2(3-ethynylpyridine)2 (RuBEP), which was reacted stoichiometrically with a 25mer DNA or morpholino (MO) oligonucleotide functionalized with 3′ and 5′ terminal azides, via Cu(I)-mediated [3+2] Huisgen cycloaddition reactions. RuBEP-caged circular morpholinos (Ru-MOs) targeting two early developmental zebrafish genes, chordin and notail, were synthesized and tested in vivo. One-cell-stage zebrafish embryos microinjected with Ru-MO and incubated in the dark for 24 h developed normally, consistent with caging, whereas irradiation at 450 nm dissociated one 3-ethynylpyridine ligand (Φ = 0.33) and uncaged the MO to achieve gene knockdown. As demonstrated, Ru photolinkers provide a versatile method for controlling structure and function of biopolymers.

Graphical abstract: Ruthenium-caged antisense morpholinos for regulating gene expression in zebrafish embryos

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
23 Dec 2014
Accepted
29 Jan 2015
First published
29 Jan 2015

This article is Open Access
All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Chem. Sci., 2015,6, 2342-2346
Article type
Edge Article
Author version available

Ruthenium-caged antisense morpholinos for regulating gene expression in zebrafish embryos

J. C. Griepenburg, T. L. Rapp, P. J. Carroll, J. Eberwine and I. J. Dmochowski, Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 2342
DOI: 10.1039/C4SC03990D

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    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
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    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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