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Issue 95, 2015
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Upconverting/magnetic: Gd2O3:(Er3+,Yb3+,Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping

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Abstract

Upconverting Gd2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) doped 1% Er3+ and 18% Yb3+ permits one to perform optical imaging. Because of the presence of Gd3+ they are useful in MRI. The main challenge is to enhance the NPs upconversion efficiency. As a result of co-doping the NPs with Zn2+ ions, achieved using microwave-induced solution combustion synthesis, we obtained optimal upconversion quantum yields (UQYs). The breakdown of the local crystal field symmetry around the rare earth ions, maximal in the presence of 5% of zinc, may be responsible for the highest observed UQY. The upconversion of IR light results in emission of visible red light mainly at 660 nm and at 550 nm. Optimized red photoluminescence of the samples observed in an organic environment was examined as a function of the laser power density to explain the mechanism of the upconversion emission. Paramagnetic properties of the NPs were determined by superconducting quantum interference device measurements. The non-functionalized nanoparticles incubated with HeLa cells were endocytosed and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy. We investigated their localization inside HeLa cells for various incubation times and NPs concentrations. PrestoBlue toxicity assay was performed to test the NPs bio-efficacy.

Graphical abstract: Upconverting/magnetic: Gd2O3:(Er3+,Yb3+,Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Jun 2015, accepted on 03 Sep 2015 and first published on 15 Sep 2015


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5RA11888C
Citation: RSC Adv., 2015,5, 78361-78373
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    Upconverting/magnetic: Gd2O3:(Er3+,Yb3+,Zn2+) nanoparticles for biological applications: effect of Zn2+ doping

    I. Kamińska, K. Fronc, B. Sikora, M. Mouawad, A. Siemiarczuk, M. Szewczyk, K. Sobczak, T. Wojciechowski, W. Zaleszczyk, R. Minikayev, W. Paszkowicz, P. Stępień, P. Dziawa, K. Ciszak, D. Piątkowski, S. Maćkowski, M. Kaliszewski, M. Włodarski, J. Młyńczak, K. Kopczyński, M. Łapiński and D. Elbaum, RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 78361
    DOI: 10.1039/C5RA11888C

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