Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 18, 2015
Previous Article Next Article

Mapping fullerene crystallization in a photovoltaic blend: an electron tomography study

Author affiliations

Abstract

The formation of fullerene crystals represents a major degradation pathway of polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojunction thin films that inexorably deteriorates their photovoltaic performance. Currently no tools exist that reveal the origin of fullerene crystal formation vertically through the film. Here, we show that electron tomography can be used to study nucleation and growth of fullerene crystals. A model bulk-heterojunction blend based on a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer and a fullerene derivative is examined after controlled annealing above the glass transition temperature. We image a number of fullerene nanocrystals, ranging in size from 70 to 400 nanometers, and observe that their center is located close to the free-surface of spin-coated films. The results show that the nucleation of fullerene crystals predominately occurs in the upper part of the films. Moreover, electron tomography reveals that the nucleation is preceded by more pronounced phase separation of the blend components.

Graphical abstract: Mapping fullerene crystallization in a photovoltaic blend: an electron tomography study

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 21 Jan 2015, accepted on 09 Apr 2015 and first published on 13 Apr 2015


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5NR00443H
Author version
available:
Download author version (PDF)
Citation: Nanoscale, 2015,7, 8451-8456
  •   Request permissions

    Mapping fullerene crystallization in a photovoltaic blend: an electron tomography study

    O. Bäcke, C. Lindqvist, A. Diaz de Zerio Mendaza, S. Gustafsson, E. Wang, M. R. Andersson, C. Müller and E. Olsson, Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 8451
    DOI: 10.1039/C5NR00443H

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements