Fabrication of TiO2 hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect for lithium-ion batteries and photocatalysis†
TiO2 hollow structures have important applications in high performance lithium ion batteries and efficient photocatalysis. In contrast to the conventional synthesis routes where various soft or hard templates are usually put into use, the direct growth of uniform TiO2 hollow nanocrystals is presented. The growth mechanism, lithium ion battery performance, and photocatalytic activity of the resultant TiO2 hollow nanocrystals are thoroughly investigated. TiO2 hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. The hollow structure results in highly active photocatalysis, high rate capability, and stable cycling.