Lignosulfonate-based acidic resin for the synthesis of renewable diesel and jet fuel range alkanes with 2-methylfuran and furfural†
Protonated phenol-formaldehyde condensation products of sodium lignosulfonate and lignocellulose derived aldehydes were first reported as cost-effective catalysts for the hydroxyalkylation/alkylation (HAA) of 2-methylfuran and furfural. Among them, the LF resin which was prepared with sodium lignosulfonate and formaldehyde exhibited the best performance. With the LF resin, higher activity, catalytic efficiency and stability than those of Amberlyst resins were observed, which can be rationalized by its higher acidic strength. The HAA product of 2-methylfuran and furfural was further converted to diesel and jet fuel range alkanes by the solvent-free hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) over the Ni/H-ZSM-5 catalysts prepared by conventional or complexation impregnation methods. It was found that the presence of complex agents can promote the dispersion of Ni, which leads to the higher HDO activity of Ni/H-ZSM-5 catalysts.