A review of cathode materials and structures for rechargeable lithium–air batteries
Rechargeable lithium air (Li–air) batteries, especially the non-aqueous type, are considered the most promising energy storage and conversion device candidates for use in future electric vehicle applications due to their ultrahigh energy density. The air cathode has been identified as a key factor affecting the overall performance of Li–air batteries. The current low level performance of air cathodes is the major challenge hindering commercial applications of Li–air batteries. In the past decade, a great many cathode materials, structures and fabrication processes have been developed and investigated with the goal of enhancing cathode performance. This paper reviews, the role of the cathode in non-aqueous Li–air batteries including the cathode reaction mechanisms and the properties and morphologies of cathode materials, followed by approaches to optimize cathode performance. The most recently published global progress and the main achievements in the field of Li–air batteries are also systematically and critically reviewed in terms of cathode materials, structures and fabrication processes, with the objective of providing some state-of-the-art information. Technical challenges are analyzed, and insights into future research directions for overcoming these development challenges of rechargeable non-aqueous Li–air battery cathodes are also identified in this review paper.
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