Performance and resource considerations of Li-ion battery electrode materials†
In this work we present a data-driven approach to the rational design of battery materials based on both resource and performance considerations. A large database of Li-ion battery material has been created by abstracting information from over 200 publications. The database consists of over 16 000 data points from various classes of materials. In addition to reference information, key parameters and variables determining the performance of batteries were collected. This work also includes resource considerations such as crustal abundance and the Herfindahl–Hirschman index, a commonly used measure of market concentration. The data is organized into a free web-based resource where battery researchers can employ a unique visualization method to plot database parameters against one another. This contribution is concerned with cathode and anode electrode materials. Cathode materials are mostly based on an intercalation mechanism, while anode materials are primarily based on conversion and alloying. Results indicate that cathode materials follow a common trend consistent with their crystal structure. On the other hand anode materials display similar behavior, based on elemental composition. Of particular interest is that high energy cathodes are scarcer than high power materials and high performance anode materials are less available. More sustainable materials for both electrodes based on alternative compositions are identified.