Preparation and characterization of 3,5-dinitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole†
Neat 3,5-dinitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole was obtained in quantitative yield from potassium 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolate and sulfuric acid. The compound was purified by sublimation in vacuo at 110 °C. Pure HDNT is a hygroscopic white solid that is impact and friction sensitive and decomposes explosively upon heating to 170 °C. However, the presence of impurities might lower the decomposition temperature and increase the sensitivity of the material. Potassium 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolate was prepared from commercially available 3,5-diamino-4H-1,2,4-triazole with sodium nitrite and sulfuric acid. The synthesis of HDNT from 2-cyanoguanidine and hydrazine hydrate without isolation and purification of the 3,5-diamino-4H-1,2,4-triazole intermediate can result in the formation of azidotriazole impurities. A triclinic and a monoclinic polymorph of 3,5-dinitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole were found by X-ray structure determination. In addition, the crystal structure of the hydrate (HDNT)3·4H2O, as well as those of several HDNT impurities and decomposition products were obtained.