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Issue 19, 2015
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Biomarkers of urinary tract infections: state of the art, and promising applications for rapid strip-based chemical sensors

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Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) commonly occur in humans due to microbial pathogens invading the urinary tract, which can bring about a range of clinical features and potentially fatal sequelae. To avoid the traditional culture method, which is time consuming, rapid screening methods of UTI are crucial for clinical practices. Biomarkers such as nitrite and leukocyte esterase are employed in urine test strips for rapid UTI screening. However, large variations in the performance of the tests have been reported. By exploiting additional biomarkers of UTI, which ideally are resistant towards external conditions and protocol variation, we have contemplated the feasibility of the test strips with improved sensitivity and diagnostic value. Through a thorough literature study, we have found that the bacterial metabolism markers trimethylamine and acetate, and the enzymatic markers xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase can be competent biomarkers of UTI. Subsequently, the feasibility of the biomarkers with possible chemical sensors appropriate for addition on strip tests is discussed.

Graphical abstract: Biomarkers of urinary tract infections: state of the art, and promising applications for rapid strip-based chemical sensors

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Article information


Submitted
29 Jun 2015
Accepted
10 Aug 2015
First published
13 Aug 2015

Anal. Methods, 2015,7, 7961-7975
Article type
Critical Review

Biomarkers of urinary tract infections: state of the art, and promising applications for rapid strip-based chemical sensors

H. Karlsen and T. Dong, Anal. Methods, 2015, 7, 7961
DOI: 10.1039/C5AY01678A

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