Biomarkers of urinary tract infections: state of the art, and promising applications for rapid strip-based chemical sensors
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) commonly occur in humans due to microbial pathogens invading the urinary tract, which can bring about a range of clinical features and potentially fatal sequelae. To avoid the traditional culture method, which is time consuming, rapid screening methods of UTI are crucial for clinical practices. Biomarkers such as nitrite and leukocyte esterase are employed in urine test strips for rapid UTI screening. However, large variations in the performance of the tests have been reported. By exploiting additional biomarkers of UTI, which ideally are resistant towards external conditions and protocol variation, we have contemplated the feasibility of the test strips with improved sensitivity and diagnostic value. Through a thorough literature study, we have found that the bacterial metabolism markers trimethylamine and acetate, and the enzymatic markers xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase can be competent biomarkers of UTI. Subsequently, the feasibility of the biomarkers with possible chemical sensors appropriate for addition on strip tests is discussed.