Enhanced solid-state electrochemiluminescence of Ru(bpy)32+ with nano-CeO2 modified carbon paste electrode and its application in tramadol determination†
A sensitized solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was successfully used for the determination of tramadol. The ECL signal was produced by a sensitive Ru(bpy)32+-tramadol reactions. A modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) was applied as a working electrode. Incorporation of cerium oxide nanoparticles in the carbon paste led to the fabrication of a novel ECL sensor. CeO2 showed attractive sensitizing effect on Ru(bpy)32+-tramadol electrochemiluminescence system. Under the optimal conditions for Ru(bpy)32+-tramadol system, a linear relationship between the ECL intensity and concentration of tramadol in the range of 1.0 × 10−10 to 2.5 × 10−8 mol L−1 was obtained with detection limit of 9.0 × 10−11 mol L−1 and relative standard deviation of 2.9% (S/N = 3). The method is sensitive, selective, and simple and has been successfully applied for the determination of tramadol in human serum, urine and pharmaceutical formulation.