A multiplex chemiluminescent biosensor for type B-fumonisins and aflatoxin B1 quantitative detection in maize flour†
A multiplex chemiluminescent biosensor for simple, rapid and ultrasensitive on-site quantification of aflatoxin B1 and type B-fumonisins in maize samples has been developed. The biosensor integrates a multiplex indirect competitive lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on enzyme-catalyzed chemiluminescence detection and a highly sensitive portable charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, employed in a lensless “contact” imaging configuration. The developed assay requires a simple extraction of the analytes from maize flour samples followed by their detection with a 30 min assay time. The use of chemiluminescence detection allowed accurate and objective analytes quantification, enabling simultaneous detection of type B-fumonisins and aflatoxin B1 down to 6 μg kg−1 and 1.5 μg kg−1, respectively, thus fulfilling the standards imposed by the legislation of European Union. Maize flour samples spiked with both analytes were subjected to multiplex analysis obtaining recoveries ranging from 80 to 115% and the coefficient of variation below 20%. Finally, analysis of naturally contaminated maize samples resulted in a good agreement between CL-LFIA and a validated confirmatory HPLC-UV and commercial ELISA kit, obtaining recoveries in the range 88–120%. The proposed CL-LFIA protocol is rapid, inexpensive, easy-to-use, and fit for the purpose of rapid screening of mycotoxins in maize flour.