Cobalt-based compounds and composites as electrode materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors†
Transition metal compounds (oxides, hydroxides, etc.) are emerging electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors (ECs) due to their rich redox properties involving multiple oxidation states and different ions. Pseudocapacitance derived from the reversible faradaic reactions can be ten times higher than those of the state-of-the-art carbon-based electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). As one of the most well-known electroactive inorganic materials, extensive studies of cobalt-based compounds (Co3O4, Co(OH)2, CoOOH, CoS, etc.) for ECs have mushroomed, and the relevant literature has grown exponentially in the past ten years. This review consolidates and evaluates the recent progress, achievements, weaknesses and challenges in the research of cobalt-based compounds and nanocomposites for ECs. The triangular relationship between synthesis strategies, tailored material properties and the electrochemical performances is thoroughly assessed, unveiling the advanced electrode material design and development.