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Issue 6, 2014
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Rapid, facile synthesis of conjugated polymer zwitterions in ionic liquids

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Abstract

Ionic liquids (ILs) were utilized for the rapid air-stable Suzuki polymerization of polar zwitterionic thiophene monomers, precluding the need for volatile organic solvents, phosphine ligands and phase transfer catalysts typically used in conjugated polymer synthesis. Ten different ILs were examined, demonstrating the scope and limitations of their utility as solvents in this Suzuki polymerization. Imidazolium, pyridinium and pyrrolidinium ILs proved effective for these polymerizations, with top performance achieved using pyrrolidinium triflate, affording polymers with molecular weight values >30 kDa. The enhanced solubility of these conjugated polymer zwitterions (CPZs) in ILs, relative to organic solvents, led to higher molecular weight polymers than obtained using previously reported methods. CPZs synthesized in ILs proved effective as cathode modification layers in solar cells, giving rise to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.57% in bulk heterojunction devices.

Graphical abstract: Rapid, facile synthesis of conjugated polymer zwitterions in ionic liquids

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Publication details

The article was received on 12 Feb 2014, accepted on 25 Mar 2014 and first published on 07 Apr 2014


Article type: Edge Article
DOI: 10.1039/C4SC00475B
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Citation: Chem. Sci., 2014,5, 2368-2373
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    Rapid, facile synthesis of conjugated polymer zwitterions in ionic liquids

    Z. A. Page, F. Liu, T. P. Russell and T. Emrick, Chem. Sci., 2014, 5, 2368
    DOI: 10.1039/C4SC00475B

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