Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 99, 2014
Previous Article Next Article

Optimization of process variables for supercritical liquefaction of giant fennel

Author affiliations

Abstract

Milled giant fennel (Ferula orientalis L.) stalks were treated in supercritical solvents in the presence of catalyst in a high pressure reactor. Effects of process variables including temperature (from 240 to 320 °C), solvent (2-propanol, 2-butanol, and acetone), catalyst (Na2CO3, NaOH, and ZnCl2), particle size (from 0.224 > Dp > 0.150 to 0.850 > Dp > 0.425), solvent/mass ratio (from 50/5 to 50/15) and reaction time (from 45 to 95 min) on product yields were investigated. The amounts of solid, liquid and gas produced, as well as the properties of the resulting bio-oils were determined. Temperature, catalyst and reaction time were major factors affecting the product yields and composition of bio-oils. The highest conversion (liquid + gas products) of 73.48% was achieved in acetone with 10% zinc chloride at 320 °C. Acetone as solvent, zinc chloride (10%) as catalyst, 0.224 > Dp > 0.150 as particle size, 50/5 as solvent/mass ratio, and 80 minutes as reaction time provide the optimum conditions for the supercritical liquefaction of Ferula orientalis L. The liquid products (bio-oils) obtained at 300 °C were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bio-oils which contained a higher amount of carbon and hydrogen than that of the original raw material had higher heating values ranging from 23.66 to 26.17 MJ kg−1.

Graphical abstract: Optimization of process variables for supercritical liquefaction of giant fennel

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 29 Jul 2014, accepted on 22 Oct 2014 and first published on 23 Oct 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4RA07790C
Author version
available:
Download author version (PDF)
RSC Adv., 2014,4, 55912-55923

  •   Request permissions

    Optimization of process variables for supercritical liquefaction of giant fennel

    T. Aysu, M. M. Küçük and A. Demirbaş, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 55912
    DOI: 10.1039/C4RA07790C

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements