Insulin loaded iron magnetic nanoparticle–graphene oxide composites: synthesis, characterization and application for in vivo delivery of insulin
One of the focal subjects in insulin delivery is the development of insulin formulations that protect the native insulin from degradation under acidic pH in the stomach. In this work we show, for the first time, that a graphene oxide (GO) based matrix can ensure the stability of insulin at low pH. GO and GO modified with 2-nitrodopamine coated magnetic particle (GO–MPdop) matrices loaded with insulin were prepared and the pH triggered release of the insulin was studied. The loading of insulin on the GO nanomaterials proved to be extremely high at pH < 5.4 with a loading capacity of 100 ± 3% on GO and 88 ± 3% on GO–MPdop. The insulin-containing GO matrices were stable at acidic pH, while insulin was released when exposed to basic solutions (pH = 9.2). Using Xenopus laevis oocytes as a model we showed that the meiotic resumption rate of GO and GO–MPdop remained unaltered when pre-treated in acidic conditions, while pre-incubated insulin (without GO nanomaterials) has lost almost entirely its maturation effect. These results suggest that GO based nanomatrices are promising systems for the protection of insulin.