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Issue 9, 2014
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Penetration, photo-reactivity and photoprotective properties of nanosized ZnO

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The oxidizing capacity and skin penetration of a commercial nanosized ZnO, Nanosun™ (Micronisers-Australia), were evaluated in vitro using porcine skin. Nanosun™ was initially characterized regarding its photo-reactivity and size distribution. An assay using methylene blue was performed to confirm the Nanosun™ photo-reactivity by exposing the labile molecule to UVA irradiation in the presence and absence of the nanosized ZnO. The nanosized ZnO was photo-reactive, reducing the methylene blue concentration to 7% while its concentration remained constant in the control formulation (without ZnO). The product label states that the average particle size is 30 nm. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption and UV-spectrophotometry confirmed the presence of nanometric particles of approximately 30 nm. On the other hand, laser diffractometry showed micrometric particles in the size distribution profile. These analyses indicated that the nanoparticles are arranged as agglomerates and aggregates of micrometric proportions ranging from 0.6 to 60 μm. The skin lipid peroxidation was determined by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and quantified by UV-spectrophotometry. When exposed to UVA radiation the nanosized ZnO applied porcine skin showed a lower production of TBARS (7.2 ± 1.5 nmol g−1) than the controls, the MCT applied porcine skin (18.4 ± 2.8 nmol g−1) and the blank porcine skin (14.0 ± 2.0 nmol g−1). The penetration of ZnO nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The tested ZnO particles did not penetrate into viable layers of the intact porcine skin. The particles tend to accumulate on the skin folds and in these regions they may penetrate into the horny layer.

Graphical abstract: Penetration, photo-reactivity and photoprotective properties of nanosized ZnO

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The article was received on 22 Oct 2013, accepted on 11 May 2014 and first published on 12 May 2014

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3PP50373A
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Citation: Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2014,13, 1253-1260
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    Penetration, photo-reactivity and photoprotective properties of nanosized ZnO

    C. B. Detoni, K. Coradini, P. Back, C. M. Oliveira, D. F. Andrade, R. C. R. Beck, A. R. Pohlmann and S. S. Guterres, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2014, 13, 1253
    DOI: 10.1039/C3PP50373A

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