Synthesis and photophysical characterisation of new fluorescent triazole adenine analogues†
Fluorescent nucleic acid base analogues are powerful probes of DNA structure. Here we describe the synthesis and photo-physical characterisation of a series of 2-(4-amino-5-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl) and 2-(4-amino-3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl) analogues via Sonogashira cross-coupling and [3 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions as the key steps in the synthesis. Compounds with a nitrogen atom in position 8 showed an approximately ten-fold increase in quantum yield and decreased Stokes shift compared to analogues with a carbon atom in position 8. Furthermore, the analogues containing nitrogen in the 8-position showed a more red-shifted and structured absorption as opposed to those which have a carbon incorporated in the same position. Compared to the previously characterised C8-triazole modified adenine, the emissive potential was significantly lower (tenfold or more) for this new family of triazoles-adenine compounds. However, three of the compounds have photophysical properties which will make them interesting to monitor inside DNA.