Zinc'ing sensibly: controlling zinc homeostasis at the transcriptional level
Zinc-responsive transcription factors are found in all kingdoms of life and include the transcriptional activators ZntR, SczA, Zap1, bZip19, bZip23, and MTF-1, and transcriptional repressors Zur, AdcR, Loz1, and SmtB. These factors have two defining features; their activity is regulated by zinc and they all play a central role in zinc homeostasis by controlling the expression of genes that directly affect zinc levels or its availability. This review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms by which each of these factors sense changes in intracellular zinc levels and how they control zinc homeostasis through target gene regulation. Other factors that influence zinc ion sensing are also discussed.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Zinc in the Biosciences