Lab-on-a-chip technology: impacting non-invasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD) through miniaturisation
This paper aims to provide a concise review of non-invasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD) to the lab-on-a-chip and microfluidics community. Having a market of over one billion dollars to explore and a plethora of applications, NIPD requires greater attention from microfluidics researchers. In this review, a complete overview of conventional diagnostic procedures including invasive as well as non-invasive (fetal cells and cell-free fetal DNA) types are discussed. Special focus is given to reviewing the recent and past microfluidic approaches to NIPD, as well as various commercial entities in NIPD. This review concludes with future challenges and ethical considerations of the field.