Environmentally responsible fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells from recycled car batteries†
Organolead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) show great promise as a new large-scale and cost-competitive photovoltaic technology. Power conversion efficiencies over 15% to 19% have been achieved within 18 to 24 months of development, and thus perovskite materials have attracted great attention in photovoltaic research. However, the manufacture of PSCs raises environmental concerns regarding the over-production of raw lead ore, which has harmful health and ecological effects. Herein, we report an environmentally responsible process to fabricate efficient PSCs by reusing car batteries to simultaneously avoid the disposal of toxic battery materials and provide alternative, readily available lead sources for PSCs. Perovskite films, assembled using materials sourced from either recycled battery materials or high-purity commercial reagents, show the same material characteristics (i.e., crystallinity, morphology, optical absorption, and photoluminescence properties) and identical photovoltaic performance (i.e., photovoltaic parameters and resistances of electron recombination), indicating the practical feasibility of recycling car batteries for lead-based PSCs.