Synthesis of DMF-protected Au NPs with different size distributions and their catalytic performance in the Ullmann homocoupling of aryl iodides†
DMF-stabilized Au nanoparticles (NPs) with three different particle sizes were prepared by controlling the reaction temperatures and times. In the absence of any additional ligands, these Au NPs showed high catalytic activity in the Ullmann homocoupling of aryl iodides in DMF. The effects of Au particle size on the coupling reaction were investigated by the use of three Au catalysts with mean particle sizes of ca. 1.0 nm, 2.5 nm, and 5.5 nm, respectively. The catalytic activity of the Au NPs was found to be in the order of Au (2.5 nm) > Au (<1.0 nm) > Au (5.5 nm), indicating that surface Au atoms do not have the same catalytic activity toward such a homocoupling reaction.