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Issue 18, 2014
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An atlas of two-dimensional materials

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Abstract

The discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials together with recent advances in exfoliation techniques have set the foundations for the manufacturing of single layered sheets from any layered 3D material. The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. Thus, they have the potential to play a fundamental role in the future of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and the assembly of novel ultrathin and flexible devices. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. Our exhaustive data collection presented in this Atlas demonstrates the large diversity of electronic properties, including band gaps and electron mobilities. The key points of modern computational approaches applied to 2D materials are presented with special emphasis to cover their range of application, peculiarities and pitfalls.

Graphical abstract: An atlas of two-dimensional materials

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Article information


Submitted
05 Mar 2014
First published
14 May 2014

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2014,43, 6537-6554
Article type
Review Article
Author version available

An atlas of two-dimensional materials

P. Miró, M. Audiffred and T. Heine, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2014, 43, 6537
DOI: 10.1039/C4CS00102H

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